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Use of the ISPV

Use of the ISPV survey

The ISPV survey helps individual users to familiarize themselves with the level of remuneration in the Czech Republic. The ISPV survey serves in particular for meeting specific needs of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and other state administration bodies. Results of the ISPV survey are used as the main data for assessment of old-age pension, valorisation of pensions, control of inflation or adjustment of salaries of civil servants.

ISPV results are used also during the collective bargaining. Thanks to the ISPV, representatives of trade unions can compare wages and salaries of individual occupations and regions of the Czech Republic, and subsequently apply such information during the collective bargaining.

The ISPV results are used by human resources officers and company managers, too. Survey results allow them to compare the level of remuneration provided to their own employees with the other ones and thereby determine the optimum wage level in the company.

The ISPV provide the employees with interesting information on wage level of individual occupations that can be used as an argument when requesting their current employer for wage increase or when looking for a new job.

Last but not least, the wage statistics is also used by the economists and students within their research. Below you can find some of the studies that used the ISPV results.

Studies Using the Data from the ISPV Survey


Eurofound: Addressing the gender pay gap: Government and social partner actions. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Dublin, 2012.

Wage differentials between men and women across Europe are a major policy concern for the European Commission and the social partners. This report provides an overview of national studies on the gender pay gap, and examines the policies and actions of governments and social actors to combat pay discrimination. The report first reviews quantitative and qualitative studies on the unadjusted and adjusted pay gap and examines the many factors cited to explain the wage differentials. Then it explores specific actions carried out by governments to reduce the gender pay gap, such as legislative measures, general recommendations, monitoring procedures and suppport for low-paid occupations. It also looks at joint initiatives and collective bargaining undertaken by the social partners, as well as highlighting successful good practice examples.
(For more detailed information see www.governo.it)

Malenovský, L., Duspivová, K. Harmonisation of the Average Earnings Information System (MoLSA) with the Wage Statistics (CZSO). Statistika 2/2012.

In 2011, the methodology of the Average Earnings Information System (ISPV) was harmonized with the methodology applied in the wage statistics of the Czech Statistical Office (CZSO). The benefit of the harmonisation rests in improved quality of the published wage statistics. Within the harmonisation, the ISPV population was extended by economic subjects not monitored before. The extension of the ISPV population allowed to calculate more accurate numbers above all on employees, and thus since 2011, all ISPV publications has newly stated weighed numbers of employees. Due to the harmonisation, the gross monthly wage median for the wage sphere decreased in 2011. Despite the harmonisation, there are still differences between both surveys due to the specifics of the ISPV survey.
(For more detailed information see www.czso.cz)


NERV: Rámec Strategie konkurenceschopnosti. Michal Mejstřík (editor) a kolektiv NERV (Národní ekonomické rady vlády), 2011.

The Framework of the Competitiveness Strategy and Starting Points by NERV (National Economic Council of the Czech Government) is an analytical document investigating the fundamental factors, which influence the position of Czech Republic in the global markets. The aim of this analysis is to evaluate with use of „hard“ data the position of Czech Republic (more precisely the position of entities and individuals from CR) when compared with other countries. The target of the analysis is both to investigate the factors of price and non-price competitiveness and later elaborate more in detail selected factors, in which Czech Republic lags behind other developed countries and which are under the sphere of its influence, and propose measures to improve the situation. For the elaboration of the analysis a variety of data sources were deployed, including international trade database of the UN, Czech Statistical Office database, Eurostat, CzechTrade, OECD, Bloomberg, IMF, as well as the indices of World Economic Forum and World Bank etc. The analysis investigates into greater detail the following areas – institutions, education, labor, goods and services markets efficiency with respect to taxation, financial markets, technological readiness, business sophistication and innovations. For each of the named areas the analysis identifies the benchmark of Czech competitiveness with other EU and non-EU countries, evaluation of the most crucial problems and measures, which the Czech Republic could deploy in order to improve the prerequisites for the global competitiveness of citizens and entities on its territory.
(For more detailed information see www.vlada.cz)

Maršíková, K.: Situation in Financing of Higher Education Across Europe: Future Perspectives. Liberec Economic Forum 2011.

The importance of university education can be proved from many perspectives. OECD data still confirm that the Czech Republic is under the average of people with university degree in Europe. Most of the financial systems of public higher education are fully or partially dependent on the state budget. Therefore future perspective of many of them is to find additional private sources for their budget. One strong argument to implement tuition fee is high rate of return to education (proved e.g. by Psacharopoulos and Patrinos). The paper introduces situation in financing of higher education in selected European countries - Czech Republic and England. There are described mechanisms of financing of higher education in the Czech Republic including data about actual perspectives of an expected reform based on the White Book. Second part of the paper mentions data about English higher education system and its changes since 2003 and evaluates mechanism of deferred tuition fee. The last part compares data of expected and real earnings in the Czech Republic. Expected earnings information has been collected at three economic faculties. Based on the short cut method there is compound a rate of return comparing different aspects and influences of the result. The summary of the paper introduces indicators for future development of the higher education within Europe.
(For more detailed information see www.promote.cz)

Duspivová, K., Spáčil, P.: The Czech Labour Market and the Current Economic Crisis: What Can the Linked Employer-Employee Data Tell Us? Statistika, č. 4/2011.

Current economic crisis has hit the Czech economy in a less severe way compared with other economies, but there have been affected employees who have lost their jobs as well as those who have remained employed but their wages have been reduced. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the possibility of wider use of linked employer-employee microdata from the Average Earnings Information System (the Czech Structure of Earnings Survey) in order to be able to identify comprehensive and more informative labour market indicators compared with the generally known basic set of indicators. With data on job flows and employee flows from the data source mentioned above, we show that the economic crisis has probably taken some effect in the economic subjects classified into our sample. Furthermore, we show that jobs in some industries have been destroyed more frequently than jobs in the others.
(For more detailed information see www.czso.cz)

Duspivová, K.: Role zahraničního vlastnictví z hlediska tvorby pracovních míst a fluktuace zaměstnanců. Politická ekonomie, č. 6/2011.

In the global world, the special focus of the paper is on the potential effects of foreign ownership on job and employee fl ows during the recent economic crisis. The initial hypothesis is that the foreignowned economic subjects may be more often subject to the excessive negative effect caused by the economic downturn compared with those of domestic ownership. Keeping this in mind, we quantify the extended set of employment indicators concerning job creation and job destruction as well as hires and separations according to the ownership of the economic subjects running their businesses in the Czech Republic in the period 2007-2010 and discuss which economic subjects have suffered the consequences of the current crisis. The results show that job destruction varied more than job creation which corresponds to cyclical asymmetry investigated by previous studies.
(For more detailed information see www.vse.cz)

Baštová, M.: Transformace průmyslu města Plzně. Disertační práce. Přírodovědecká fakulta, Masarykova univerzita, Brno, 2011.

This dissertation thesis deals with the transformation of industrial production in the city of Plzen after 1989. Among other issues, the change in industrial employment, the change in sectoral, size, ownership, and spatial distribution of employment changes were analysed by means of methods used by Duspivova & Spacil (2010).
(For more detailed information see is.muni.cz)

Jurajda, Š., : Regional Divergence and Returns to Schooling. CERGE-EI, Prague 2011.

Regional economic disparities are large and persistent in EU-8 countries, thanks in part to weak wage and mobility adjustment. In this paper, local returns to education in the Czech Republic are estimated and linked to changing educational composition of local labor force.There is large variation in local educational endowment and relative wages. Districts with morecollege educated labor force display higher increases in their educational endowment and higher returns to education. This is consistent with models of regional divergence driven by advanced technology adoption or human capital spillovers.
(For more detailed information see www.cerge-ei.cz)

Jurajda, Š., Stančík, J. : Organization and Firm Performance in the Czech Republic. INNODRIVE Working Paper No 12, Prague 2011.

Much research uses employer-employee data to compare wage and productivity dierentials across demographic groups. We apply this approach to asses the importance of `organizational' workers, i.e., managing and marketing personnel. The estimates based on 2000-2006 Czech worker-level data augmented with company balance sheet information suggest that these workers are important for company performance and that they are fairly rewarded for their relative productivity in terms of their relative pay. Foreign-owned companies feature higher shares of such workers who are more productive in these rms (relative to other employees) compared to domestically owned companies.
(For more detailed information see www.innodrive.org)


Duspivová, K., Spáčil, P.: Dopad současné hospodářské krize na zaměstnanost v ekonomických subjektech s 250 a více zaměstnanci. Statistika, No. 6/2010.

The main aim of this article is to present new approach to the analysis of the data on employment available in the Average Earnings Information System and with the help of this approach to quantify the impact of economic crisis on selected economic subjects. In our pilot analysis, we were concerned with the data on the economic subjects that employed more than 250 employees at least at one year taken into consideration (i.e. in the year 2007, 2008 or 2009). With data on job flows and employees’ flows from the data source mentioned above, we show, that the economic crisis has probably taken some effect in the economic subjects classified into our sample. Furthermore, we show that jobs in some industries have been destroyed more frequently than jobs in the others. Last but not least we show that employees, who have left economic subjects (voluntarily or involuntarily) more often than other employees, have been blue-collar workers and employees older than 50 years.
(For more detailed information see panda.hyperlink.cz)

Gebicka, B.: College Degree Supply and Occupational Allocation of Graduates – the Case of the Czech Republic. CERGE-EI Working Paper Series 407, Prague 2010.

Public funding drives much of the recent growth of college degree supply in Europe, but few indicators are available to assess its optimal level. In this paper, I investigate an indicator of college skills usage - the fraction of college graduates employed in "college" occupations. Gottschalk and Hansen (2003) propose to identify "college" occupations based on within-occupation college wage premia; I build on their strategy to study the local-labor-market relationship between the share of college graduates in the population and the use of college skills. Empirical results based on worker-level data from Czech NUTS-4 districts suggest a positive relationship, thus supporting the presence of an endogenous influence of the number of skilled workers on the demand for them.
(For more detailed information see www.cerge-ei.cz)

Dybczak K., Galuščák K.: Changes in the Czech Wage Structure: Does Immigration matter?. European Central Bank, Frankfurt am Main 2010.

Using the Albrecht et al. (2003) version of the Machado and Mata (2005) decomposition technique along the wage distribution, we find that immigrant workers do not affect changes in the Czech wage structure between 2002 and 2006 despite their substantial inflows. Instead, changes in the wage structure are explained solely by increasing returns of native workers, while changes in the observed characteristics of native workers, particularly a rising level of education, are responsible for increasing wage dispersion. The sizeable inflows of foreign workers in the sample years are concentrated among young workers with primary and tertiary education and are primarily due to rising labour demand. The negative immigrant-native wage gaps are persistent along the wage distribution and are explained mainly by differences in observed characteristics. We provide evidence on increasing returns to education of native workers along the wage distribution. The returns are higher in 2006 than in 2002, in line with the evidence in the previous literature.
(For more detailed information see www.ecb.int)


Eriksson, T., Pytlikova, A.: Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies: Evidence from Czech Republic. ASB, University of Aarhus, Aarhus 2009.

In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The raw wage differential between foreign and domestically owned firms is about 24 percent. The empirical analysis is carried out on both firm- and individual-level data. A key finding is that industry, region, and notably human capital explain only a small part of the foreign-domestic ownership wage differential. Both white and blue collar workers obtain a foreign ownership wage premium. Joint estimation of productivity and wage equations show that, controlling for human capital, the difference in productivity is about twice as large as the wage differential.
(For more detailed information see www.eale.nl)

Vltavská, K., Fischer, J.: The possibilities to Compute the Influence of Human Capital on Total Factor Productivity: Czech and Slovak example. University of Economics, Prague 2009.

The aim of this paper is to show the impact of human capital (measured as the level of education) on productivity in all industries in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and to show the difference between these countries. It concentrates on development in the period between the years 2004 and 2007. The article implicitly examines the necessity of investments in human capital for increasing both national and international competitiveness of industries. It is important to take into account the changing composition of labour force. Employing decomposition of the contribution of labour services into the contribution of hours worked and the contribution of labour composition one can find out the impact of labour skills on the productivity.
(For more detailed information see www.vse.cz

Eriksson, T., Pytliková, M., Warzynski, F.: Increased Sorting and Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic: New Evidence Using Linked Employer-Employee Dataset. Aarhus University, Aarhus 2009.

In this paper, we look at the evolution of firms’ wage structures using a linked employeremployee dataset, which has longitudinal information for firms and covers a large fraction of the Czech labor market during the period 1998-2006. We first look at the evolution of individual wage determination and find evidence of slightly increasing returns to human capital and diminishing gender inequality. We then document sharp increases in both within-firm and between-firm inequality. We investigate various hypotheses to explain these patterns: increased domestic and international competition, an increasingly decentralized wage bargaining, skill biased technological change and a changing educational composition of the workforce. We find some support for that all these factors have contributed to the changes in the Czech wage structure, and that increased sorting is strongly associated with the observed changes in wage inequality.
(For more detailed information see http://www.hha.dk)

Vavrečková, J., Baštýř, I.: Effects of the Phenomenon of Brain Drain in the CR and Earnings Motivation of Experts to Work Abroad. VÚPSV, Prague 2009.

The brain drain phenomenon is mainly associated with migration from developing countries to less developed countries, but this phenomenon is also significant for relatively developed countries, among them the Czech Republic. The free movement of labour within the EU and lucrative immigration programmes operated by a number of member states can encourage a considerable exodus of highly qualified Czech labour, with a negative impact on a number of sectors of the Czech economy. The aim of this study is to scrutinise the extent of human capital flight from the Czech Republic and its contributing factors. The core of the work draws on a questionnaire-based survey of the migration attitudes of four groups of experts identified as being susceptible to migration; these groups are doctors, IT/ICT specialists, technical engineers from corporate research and development and doctorate students. The results of the four questionnaires are analysed in relation to a survey of the migration attitudes of the Czech population as a whole and from the perspective of differences between the groups of experts in their inclination to migrate. Another integral part of the work is an analysis of the income motivation for Czech experts to work abroad, where the differential between the earnings of the experts under scrutiny in the Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, Great Britain and Ireland is compared as the basis for a deduction of the intensity of the earnings stimulation to work abroad. The work is complemented by a statistical analysis of the development of the number of the experts under scrutiny on the Czech labour market.
(For more detailed information see www.praha.vupsv.cz)

Mikeszová, M., Lux, M., Morisseau, A.: The Potential Unaffordability of Rental Housing after Rent Deregulation in a Regional Perspective. Czech Sociological Review 2009, 45, 2, pp. 315-344.

The article deals with an analysis of regional differences in rental housing affordability following rent deregulation in the Czech Republic. The objective is to identify the types of households potentially at risk of being unable to afford housing, to map the development of potential housing (un)affordability since 2000, and to trace the development of regional differences in the percentage of at-risk households in the Czech Republic. Owing to the absence of useful aggregate data on incomes and expenditures for different household types in the regions of the Czech Republic, the authors created their own simulation methodology for measuring housing affordability, which uses available regional wage statistics and data on market rents. The results indicate that the general risk of being unable to afford rental housing and regional differences in housing affordability are both decreasing, but there is still a relatively large group of households that under current wage conditions for paying social benefi ts would be unable to afford to pay market rents.
(For more detailed information see www.dlib.lib.cas.cz)

Michalička, L., Kotíková, J., Stupnytskyy, O.: Forecasting of Education and Training Needs for the Period 2008 - 2012. VÚPSV, Prague 2009.

The study describes the state of the ROA - CERGE model for the forecasting of education and training needs as of December 2008. The main components of the model for relevant groups of education and jobs are explained and demonstrated. The model provides a prognosis of skill needs for the period 2008 - 2012. The results are intended to give the supplementary information to workers of decision sphere, employment services, employers and the individuals.
(For more detailed information see www.vupsv.cz)

Lajtkepová, E.: The Position of the Minimum Wage in the Wage Distribution of the Entrepreneurial Sector in the Czech Republic. Ekonomická revue – Central European Review of Economic 12: 51-60 (2009).

The minimum wage was first established in the former Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1991. Currently the issue of minimum wage in the Czech Republic is stipulated by act number 262/2006 Coll., Labour Act. The aim of the submitted article is to identify the position of the minimum wage in the wage distribution of the entrepreneurial sector in the Czech Republic, the outline of the further development in wages with respect to average and median wages and the wages of the 1st and 9th deciles, as well as the outline of the development of the statutory minimum wage. Official sample survey data from the Information system on average salaries from the years 2001–2008 is used (quarterly-period frequency). This data is processed using the method of descriptive statistics. Conclusion can be reached based on an analysis of this statistical data that during the period of time in question all monitored wage categories saw wage rises. However the rise was not uniformly fast or balanced. The wages rose the most in case of the best-paid employees (9th decile wage) and in case of the minimum wage, whereas the 1st decile wage rose the least. The minimum wage amount was not adjusted since 1st July 2006, so the growth in question had been recorded only between the years 2001 and 2006. The development of the calculated indices of the decile ratio can lead us to the conclusion that certain increase in wage differentiation took place, even though this process was not uniform again.
(For more detailed information see www.ekf.vsb.cz)

Křížková, A., Penner, A. M., Petersen, T.: Within-Job Gender Wage Inequality: The Role of the Social Exclusion of Women. Sociologický ústav AV ČR, Prague 2009.  

Using company-level data from the Czech Republic dating from the years 1998, 2002, and 2004, the article examines whether the introduction of legislative measures aimed at gender equality in connection with the country’s accession to the European Union had significant effects on gender wage gaps. The main conclusion of the analysis is that within-job wage discrimination is a significant factor in the Czech labour market and that there were no substantive changes during the period studied. Women doing the same job in the same company earn about 10 per cent less than men in the Czech Republic. Much of the gender wage gap can be explained by horizontal and vertical gender segregation of the labour market. The lowest gender wage gaps are found in firms and groups of employees that are representative of or have strong ties to the socialist past. The article concludes with speculations about whether motherhood and the double-burden of women, combined with the lack of respect and authority accorded the path dependent legal system, results in legislative changes having little impact on practices in Czech society and in persistence gender wage discrimination.
(For more detailed information see www.genderonline.cz)


Stupnytskyy, O.: The Structure of Differences in Earnings of Men and Women in Management. VÚPSV, Prague 2007.

The article deals with the question of the wage divergence of men and women in management in the Czech Republic and the proportion of women in business according to sector, control level and type of organization. The study describes and analyses income divergence in terms of working position, personal characteristics and characteristics of the employer using the method Oaxaca-Blinder. The author used relevant data from the Information System on Working Conditions of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs for the years 2000 and 2005. The study researches the public and private sectors separately because of the different determination system employed.
(For more detailed information see www.vupsv.cz)

Eriksson, T., Pytliková, M., Warzinsky, F.: Labor Market Dynamics in the Czech Republic: New Evidence Using Linked Employer-Employee Dataset. Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus 2007.

In this paper, we look at the evolution of the Czech labor market using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. We find evidence of (slightly) diminishing gender inequality, increased returns to human capital, especially to education. We investigate various hypotheses to explain that pattern.
(For more detailed information see www.client.norc.org)

Pavel, J., Turková, V.: Employment of foreigners in the CR. Research study 6/2007, Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic, Prague 2007.

The study focuses on the remarkable growth of employment of foreigners in the CR since joining the EU and its impact on the labour market. Reviewed were available data sources, status and employment possibilities of foreigners, their structure and regional distribution and a possibility of negative influence on the Czech labour market. Neither crowding-out of domestic workers nor verifiable negative impacts on the wage development were identified. Based on the available sources it has been established that the growth of foreign employment is rather of a cyclical character and foreigners accept jobs that are either specialised or not taken up by Czech labour force due to its permanently lower adaptability and mobility
(For more detailed information see www.mfcr.cz


Jurajda, Š., Paligorova, T.: Female Managers and Their Wages in Central Europe. CERGE-EI, Prague 2006.

This paper examines the gender gaps in employment and wages among top- and lowerlevel managerial employees in a recent sample of Czech firms. Unlike the existing analyses of managerial gender pay gaps, we acknowledge the adverse consequences of the low and uneven representation of women for the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition and offer an alternative set of results based on a matching procedure. Only 7% of top-level Czech managers are women and their wages are about 20 percent lower even when compared only to their comparable male colleagues.
(For more detailed information see www.cerge.cuni.cz)


Jurajda, Š.: Czech Returns to Schooling: Does the Short Supply of College Education Bite?, Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a úvěr), 55 (1-2), 83-95, Praha 2005.

Czech returns to education are estimated using 2002 data on hourly wages of salaried employees. The return to an additional year of schooling is close to 10% – that is relatively high given the level of economic development and average schooling level. Particularly large is the college/high-school wage gap: it is about 50% higher than in Germany or Austria, which have a similar education structure. This is likely caused by the short supply of tertiary education provided by the funds-starved Czech public colleges.
(For more detailed information see www.cerge.cuni.cz)

Paligorova, T.: Czech Managerial Compensations: Why Does It Pay Off to Climb the Corporate Ladder?. CERGE-EI Working Paper Series 262, Prague 2005.

This paper uses matched employer-employee data for the Czech Republic to study the structure of managerial compensation. The evidence supports two key predictions from tournament theory. First, the managerial pay differential between organizational levels is non-decreasing as one goes up the corporate ladder. I document a particularly large increment of the pay differential at the top of a firm's hierarchy. Second, the winner's prize in the tournament increases with the number of competitors for the position of the top managers.
(For more detailed information see www.cerge-ei.cz

Older studies

Eriksson, T., Pytliková, M.: Firm-level Consequences of Large Minimum-wage Increases in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus 2004.   

After an initial decline in the level of real minimum-wage rates, there were series of unusually large increases in their levels — 70 and 50 per cent — during the years 1999–2002 in the Czech and Slovak Republics, respectively. Using information from matched employee–employer data sets, we look at the impact of minimum-wage hikes on both wages and employment. Our results suggest that there are some, but not substantial, job losses in reaction to minimum-wage hikes and that the impact on firm wages is rather large, implying that further increases of similar magnitude might very well have negative consequences for employment.
(For more detailed information see www3.interscience.wiley.com)   

Eriksson, T.: Managerial Pay and Executive Turnover in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus 2001.

Despite the crucial role played by managers in changing the functioning of labour markets in transition economies,research on the determinants of executive pay and CEO turnover in these countries is almost non-existent. The current paper aims at adding to this minuscule literature. For this purpose I make use of a unique data set containing relevant firm-manager information from the Czech and Slovak Republics in the late nineties. This allows me to examine the influence of individual and in particular firm characteristics, such as, size, ownership type, industry and region, as well as corporate performance on chief executive compensation levels and changes therein and on the probability of the executive being turned over.
(For more detailed information see http://www.hha.dk )

Hašková, H.: Attitudes of Czech University Graduates towards the Position of Women in the Labour Market. Sociologický ústav AV ČR, Prague 2000.

This paper brings an overview of theoretical – economic and sociological – approaches to gender differences in the labour market. Major shortcomings of these theories are underscored using Czech and foreign empirical studies. The empirici part of the study is based on gender theories that highlight the influence of biases concerning the female labour force on the behaviour of employers, employees and those preparing for employment. Based on data from empirical research, we explore the existence of these biases among Czech university graduates. An interpretation of a lower position of women in the labour market which is held by the educational elite is also investigated. For that purpose, the collected data are analysed in a quantitative statistical as well as qualitative explorative way. The results showed that women often tend to interpret gender differences in the labour market, such as payment differences and the segregation of men and women into different labour sectors, branches, professions, firms, work collectives and positions, as discriminatory, while men interpret them more often as a result of women's nature. Although comparable data among the whole Czech population were not available, results of the research on university graduates (employers, employees, superiors and employees without subordinates) indicate that it is possible to use theories that highlight biases as a source of gender discrimination in the labour market as a basis for the research of the lower position of women in the current Czech labour market. 
(For more detailed information see http://sreview.soc.cas.cz)

Eriksson, T., Gottvald, J., Mrázek, P.: Determinants of Managerial Pay in the Czech Republic, Working Paper Number 310, 2000.

 The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of the variation in Czech managers’ pay levels. Among the questions we attempt to answer are: Are the managers in state-owned firms compensated differently than those in private owned firms? How much of the difference in pay is explained by differences in individual characteristics and job levels? What is the importace of the regional location or the industry affiliation of the firms for managerial pay differentials?
We use data from a cross-section of Czech managers in 1998 and estimate earnings equations augmented with a host of explanatory variables related to firm and job characteristics.
(For more detailed information see http://www.wdi.umich.edu)